We previously wrote about the split among the circuit courts of appeal over the ascertainability requirement for class certification and whether self-identifying consumer affidavits—e.g., an affidavit in which a consumer attests that he or she is a class member and suffered injury—can satisfy that requirement.
Recently, the First Circuit denied, over a strong dissent, a Rule 23(f) petition to appeal a district court’s order certifying a class on the grounds that the plaintiffs could demonstrate ascertainability through consumer affidavits. Carter v. The Dial Corporation, No. 17-8009, 2017 WL 3225164 (1st Cir. July 31, 2017). In Carter, the district court certified a class of consumers from eight states who purchased antibacterial soap from 2001 to the present. The defendants lacked any records to identify class members, and class members were unlikely to possess records demonstrating that they purchased the product. Nevertheless, the district court, relying on the First Circuit’s recent decision In re Nexium Antitrust Litig., 777 F.3d 9 (1st Cir. 2015), held that the plaintiffs satisfied ascertainability because class members could submit affidavits or declarations to establish that they purchased the product during the 16-year class period.
Judge Kayatta, who also dissented in Nexium, dissented from the denial of the Rule 23(f) petition. Kayatta stated that the Nexium majority held that plaintiffs could establish classwide injury through affidavits from each class member stating that he or she was not a brand loyalist, i.e., would not have purchased a cheaper generic version of the drug if available—an approach suggested by neither party. 2017 WL 3225164 at *1 (citing Nexium, 777 F.3d at 20). Kayatta observed there was no record in either Nexium or Carter to evaluate whether the defendant would have had a meaningful opportunity to refute the proposed affidavits. Kayatta noted that “[s]ooner or later, this court will have to wrestle with the issues raised by the district court’s approach” on a full record and briefing. 2017 WL 3225164, at *1.